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Fort St Joseph or Fort Nashwaak
After the capture of Port Royal by the British in 1690, Count Frontenac, the Governor of Quebec, appointed Sieur de Villebon the Governor of Acadie, with orders to move the capital from Port Royal to the more secure St John River Valley. At first Villebon located at Jemseg, but in the summer of 1692 he selected a new site at the mouth of the Nashwaak River, where the Irving oil tanks now stand. There he built a palisaded fort with four bastion, which he named Fort St Joseph, but was more frequently referred to as Fort Nashwaak. From his new capital, Villebon was able to maintained the close French alliance with the natives and to annoyed the British with considerable success. In the autumn of 1698, he was ordered to abandon Fort Nashwaak and to relocate to the rebuilt fort at the mouth of the St John River. A Historic Sites & Monuments Board of Canada plaque in Carleton Park commenorates Fort Nashwaak.
The 1696 British
Assault on Fort Nashwaak
Villebon and Fort Nashwaak became a source of torment for the settlers of New England. In 1696 an expedition under command of Colonel Hawthorne and Major Benjamin Church set out to destroy the fort. Villebon had been alerted and prepared his defences. On October 18th the British troops arrived opposite the fort, landed three canons and threw up earthworks on the south bank of the Nashwaak River, near where the Fort Nashwaak Motel now stands. There was a fierce exchange of fire for two days, with the advantage going to the better sited French guns. It became readily apparent to the British that a long siege would be required and with advanced season, this was impractical. The British reembarked and departed, having suffered 8 killed and 17 wounded. The French lost one killed and two wounded.
Village of Ste Anne
In the winter of 1759, a company of rangers under command of Lieutenant Moses Hazen was sent on snowshoes from Fort Frederick at the mouth of the Saint John River to reconnoitre up the river as far as the Acadien settlement of Sainte Anne, currently the site of the City of Fredericton. Before hastily retreating, the rangers burnt the chapel and several other buildings at Sainte Anne. The York-Sunbury Museum has an exhibit which covers this event.
Battle of Camperdown
Camperdown Lane, Fredericton
The short lane between Queen and King Streets, east of Regent Street, commemorates the Battle of Camperdown on 11 October 1797, an engagement of the French Revolution, between a Dutch fleet under Admiral de Winter and a British fleet under Admiral Adam Duncan. The British learned that the Dutch fleet had been despatched to protect a French force landing in Ireland. The British navy set out to intercept them. Admiral Duncan won a complete victory, capturing the Dutch flagship and seven other warships, besides taking about 6,000 prisoners. This action effectively destroyed the Dutch navy, France’s ally, as a fighting force.
42nd Highland Memorial Cemetery
At the end of the American Revolutionary War, disbanded Scottish soldiers from the 42nd Regiment, more commonly known as the Black Watch, received grants of land along the Nashwaak River. This cemetery contains the remains of many of these veterans. This is a designated provincial historic site.
Muster Master General Edward Winslow
During the American Revolutionary War the British Commander-in-Chief, General Sir William Howe, expanded the military use of Loyalist or Tories in Provincial Corps. In order to establish financial control over these units he appointed Colonel Edward Winslow to the key position of Muster Master General of the Provincial Forces, with the task of mustering each regiment six times a year. Here every soldier was paraded, counted, and identified.
On the fifth floor of the Harriet Irving Library is a Historic Sites and Monument Board of Canada plaque dedicated to Edward Winslow, which reads: “Fourth in descent from Governor Edward Winslow of Plymouth Colony. He served as Muster Master General of the Loyalist forces in the Revolutionary War. In 1783 he supervised the settlement of the disbanded regiments in the Valley of the Saint John. A founder of this Province and of Fredericton, he became a member of His Majesty’s Council in 1784. Appointed to the First Council of the College of New Brunswick in 1800, and to the Supreme Court in 1807, he served in 1808 as President of the Government of New Brunswick. Born in Plymouth, Mass 20 February 1746. Died at Kingsclear, NB 13 May 1815.
The Military Compound
National Historic Site
In 1784, Fredericton, along with being appointed the capital of the newly formed Colony of New Brunswick, became the location of a British Garrison. British regiments were stationed there from 1784 to 1869, occupying a two block area bounded by the river and Queen, York and Regent Streets. Constructed mainly of wood, most of the original buildings were lost through deterioration or fire; however, a number of the key buildings were replaced by stone ones. One original wooden buildings and three, 19th century stone structures remain. In 1965, the Military Compound was declared a National Historic Site and a plaque is to found on the Guard House. It is also a protected provincial historic site.
Militia Arms Store
Of the 61 original buildings in the Military Compound, this is the only remaining wooden structure. It was probably built in 1832 and was used to store weapons and ammunition for the local militia. In 1882, an extension was added to the rear and renovated into a military hospital. It has seen several uses since then, a warehouse, temperance hall, a caretaker's residence and offices for the Downtown Development Fredericton Inc. It now houses the tourism staff for the City of Fredericton.
This small building is typical of British guard houses found around the world. It was built in 1828 and consists of an orderly room, guard room and detention cells. The Guard House has been restored to 1866 with muskets, uniforms and equipment, when the British 15th Regiment was station in Fredericton. There is a Historic Sites & Monuments Board of Canada plaque on the building.
The Officers' Quarters
The original quarters for the British officers of the Garrison was a wood and brick structure completed in 1792, which was destroyed by fire in 1815 and then was rebuilt in a similar style. The existing stone structure was added in two sections, one in 1841 and the other 1851, each separated by a brick firewall. The arches, handrails and staircase are again typical of Royal Engineers of the colonial period. The wooden sections of the building were removed in 1925; however, the outline of its stone foundation is still visible. The Officers' Quarters currently houses the York-Sunbury Historical Society and its museum.
The original wooden barracks were replaced by the existing stone structure in November 1827. It was occupied by British troops from then until their departure in 1869. Then it was used as a Provincial Normal School and by other local organization until 1883 when the newly formed Infantry School Corps, a part of the Canadian Army, returned it back to a barracks. After World War One it fell into disuse until 1927 when it became a warehouse. In 1974, one barrack room was restored to illustrate its original use and the remainder of the building became the home of the Province's Archaeology Branch and its collection.
Winter March of
the 104th Regiment
Historic Sites & Monuments Board of Canada Plaque on the wall of the Soldiers' Barracks commemorates this remarkable feat during the War of 1812. Late in 1812 the British detected a major build up of American troops, naval ships and supplies at Sackett's Harbour, New York. They feared an American attack on Upper Canada before the ice had left the St Lawrence and reinforcement could arrive. It was decided to take the desperate measure of moving reinforcements overland from New Brunswick in dead of winter on snowshoes. On 16 February 16 1813 six companies of the 104th Regiment left Fredericton on a challenging 800 mile trek. The Regiment arrived in Quebec City on March 15th, and after a period of garrison duty there, they moved on to Kingston, Ontario, arriving in time to participate in an assault on the American base at Sackett's Harbour
Sir John Harvey
Harvey was a noted and well respected British soldier and colonial administrator, who attained the rank of lieutenant-general. He saw extensive service during the War of 1812 and distinguished himself by obtaining a victory against a superior American force at the Battle of Stoney Creek. He was appointed Governor of New Brunswick in 1837 and was in command during the New Brunswick/Maine border dispute. His adroit handing of this crisis prevented an outbreak of war, but he was dismissed in 1841 for exceeding his authority. The Village of Harvey was named for him.
The east end of Fredericton was for many years known as Salamanca. In the summer of 1839, the 36th Regiment of British Army formed part of the Fredericton Garrison. To celebrate the Regiment's participation in a famous victory over Napoleon's Army at the Battle of Salamanca in the Peninsula War in Spain, they staged a sham battle below the town. The supposed defenders, consisting mainly of local militia units, occupied breastworks on the hill, but to the admiration of the many spectators, they could not resist the gallant charge and assault of soldiers of the 36th Regiment. As a result of this popular spectacle, the area and railway station was named Salamanca.
Memorial Tablet to a British Engineer Officer
Memorial to the
Soldiers of the British Garrison
A memorial cross and an older cairn mark the plot where soldiers from the British Garrison are buried. These are men who served in Fredericton between 1784 and 1869.
Plaque dedicated to Sarah Emma Edmonds
Saunders Road, Magaguadavic, Highway #635.
A plaque commemorates Sarah Emma Edmonds, whose childhood home stood nearby. Edmonds ran away from home to avoid an arranged marriage and took on the persona of a man called Franklin Thomson. Disguised as Thomson, she served in the American Civil War as a private in Company “F” of the Second Michigan Volunteer Infantry. Eventually, she returned to a woman’s role, married and had a family. She is the only known woman to receive a veteran’s pension from the Civil War. This plaque was unveiled on 19 June 2005, with members of the 20th Maine (Reenactors) in attendance.
Musquash Settlement Archaeological Site or Skaddle Ridge
This archaeological site is located about 16 km from McAdam overlooking the southeastern end of Spednic Lake. The site was settled around 1861, just prior to the outbreak of the American Civil War by American draft dodgers from the Union Army. They were locally referred to as "skedaddlers" or "ridge runners". There are at least six other known New Brunswick locations which served as havens for those avoiding service in the Civil War. The Musquash Settlement became relatively self-sufficient and by the 1871 York County Census it had a Presbyterian minister, a schoolteacher, a mason, a carpenter, several labourers and 10 farmers.
The settlement existed for about ten years and was then abandoned as the inhabitants either returned to the United States or became integrated into the Canadian community.
The Infantry School Corps School
Regimental Sergeant Major Thomas McKenzie - Canada’s First Regular Soldier
Rural Cemetery, Woodstock Road, Fredericton
Thomas McKenzie was born in 1830 in Gibralter, the son of Sergeant Duncan McKenzie of the 94th Regiment. Thomas joined the 64th Regiment (North Staffordshire Regiment) at the age of eleven as a bugler, drummer, and flautist in the regimental band. In 1849, the 64th was posted to India; while there, Thomas was promoted to corporal in 1851 and to sergeant in 1854. In 1856, the 64th participated in the Persian War and Sergeant McKenzie was appointed bugler to the commanding general, Sir JamesOutram. The 64th played a major role in the Indian Mutiny and McKenzie saw action at the reliefs of Cawnpore and Lucknow. McKenzie was then promoted Colour Sergeant. In 1861, the British Army asked for volunteers to go to British North America to train the militia and McKenzie was selected.
Colour Sergeant Thomas McKenzie arrived in Saint John in February 1862, and was employed training militia units in New Brunswick, primarily with the 62nd Battalion of the New Brunswick Militia located in Saint John. He was mobilized as the Regimental Sergeant Major with the Saint John Volunteer Battalion during the Fenian threat in 1865/66. McKenzie was very active in rifle competitions and attended the first Dominion rifle match near Montreal. In 1868, he was formally discharged from the 64th Regiment and the British Army.In the 1871 Census, McKenzie appears as the Militia Stores Keeper living in Fredericton with his wife Hannah and two children. When the Canadian Government established a Military School of Instruction at Fredericton in 1872, McKenzie was selected as the school’s only drill instructor, and served in this capacity for the next eleven years. In 1883, the Canadian Government established its first regular infantry unit, called the Infantry School Corps. McKenzie joined the Corps as its first member on 7 January 1884, and was appointed the Corps Regimental Sergeant Major, a position he held until he retired in 1895. After retirement he served as custodian of the Fredericton Armouries and Military Compound. He died on 26 February 1910, and is buried in the Rural Cemetery in Fredericton.
Victor Hatheway Chapter of the Imperial Order of the Daughters of the Empire (IODE)
This Fredericton branch of the IODE is named in honour of Midshipman John Victor Hatheway, the first of some 110 men from Fredericton to die for King and Country during the Great War. He was the son of Frederick and Christina Hatheway of Springhill. After attending high school in Fredericton, in the spring of 1911, at the age 16, he entered the recently established Naval College in Halifax. Upon graduating at the end of 1912, he was commissioned as a midshipman, and went to sea with the British Royal Navy. Hatheway was home on leave celebrating his 19th birthday when war was declared on 3 August 1914. He was ordered immediately back to Halifax and was assigned to the British cruiser HMS Suffolk. He was later transferred to HMS Good Hope, the flagship of a British squadron assigned to the South Atlantic. On 1 November 1914, British and German squadrons, each consisting of four armoured cruisers, met in the Battle of Coronel off the coast of Chile. HMS Good Hope was hit 35 times and sank with the loss of all 919 crew onboard. Midshipman Hatheway was one of four midshipman from the Royal Canadian Navy doing their “big ship time”, who perished in the sinking of HMS Good Hope, making them the first Canadian casualties of the First World War. The others were Malcolm Cann of Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, William Archibald Palmer of Ottawa, Ontario, and Arthur Wiltshire Silver of Halifax, Nova Scotia.
Midhsipman Hatheway's uniform is part of the collection of the York-Sunbury Historical Society Museum. Photos by same.
First World War Commemorative
Park across from the Railway Station, McAdam
There is a very attractive bronze tablet mounted in the park commemorating those CPR employees called to duty in World War One. In lists key battle honours and has a panorama of various military units marching off to war. It is believed the plaque originally was located in the railway station.
York County Cenotaph
York Centennial Park, Mactaquac, Highway #105
The Cenotaph in York Centennial Park was built in 1922 in memory of 34 soldiers from York County who died fighting for Canada in World War One. It was originally located in Burtts Corners along Highway #104, but was moved to Mactaquac in 1967. Since its relocation, the memorial has been re-dedicated to honour soldiers who died in World War Two and the Korean War. In June 2003 an addition to the cenotaph included engravings of the Union Jack, the Red Ensign, the Canadian flag and the names of the committee who raised the original memorial.
No 70 Canadian Army (Basic) Training Centre
Exhibition Grounds, Fredericton
This training facility for No7 Military District was first opened as a NPAM Training Centre on October 9th, 1940, then on February 15th, 1941 it was designated a basic training centre and finally, on November 15th, 1943 as a basic infantry training centre.
Since exhibitions were cancelled for the duration of World War Two, the exhibition grounds in Fredericton were leased to the Canadian Army. The training centre extended from the exhibition ground across Woodstock Road and along the St John River, on either side of Old Government House. Transport Company No 7 was in the Exhibition Grounds, with its offices located under the grandstand. Also on the grounds, adjacent to Smythe Street, at the railway tracks, were located the RCASC Commissariat, the POL building, and gas pumps. The gas pumps were removed about 1948/9, but the commissariat remained until it was moved to Base Gagetown. The huts occupied by the CWAC women were near the race track and are now used as barns for horses. The military hospital was located near the Victoria Public Hospital, as was the brigadier’s married quarters, the officers’ mess, and library. The nurses’ quarters were in a building facing the river.
Headquarters New Brunswick Area
In September 1946, the Military District No 7 of World War Two, located in Saint John, was disbanded and Headquarters New Brunswick Area was established in Fredericton. Since the lease on the Fredericton Exhibition Grounds had expired, this military organization was concentrated in the military buildings previously occupied by No 70 Basic Training Centre located between Woodstock Road and the St John River around Old Government House. In 1946, No 7 Transport Company was moved from the Exhibition Grounds to Hut #5 in the HQ NB Area compound. One of the buildings it took over was a two bay garage with a tool room and office located in the back, built in late 1939 or early 1940. This garage was demolished in 2002, the last military building to stand in the area. Shortly after this move, new accommodation was built for No 7 Transport Company on Waggoner’s Lane, in the building now occupied by Canada Post. In 1955, HQ NB Area moved to the newly established Camp Gagetown. With the exception of the armories, that ended the military presence in Fredericton. The old officer’s mess located along the river was leased to the Fredericton Garrison Club and remained its club house until be burnt down in the late 1990's.
Second World War Airplane Crash Site
Scotch Settlement, Highway #615 near Mactaquac
On March 19th, 1944 while flying in formation, a Lockheed Ventura twin engine light bomber from RCAF Station Pennfield Ridge crashed at the edge of a field owned by Ralph McCoy near Scotch Lake. Two crew members, Frank William Thompson and George Robert Somers, were killed, Ernie Hicks was seriously injured and Raymond Edward Cormier escape unharmed. These three are included in the 856 aircrew trainees killed or seriously injured while participating in the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan.
Room from the Ripple's Internment Camp
Union Street, Devon, Fredericton
The small green
clad building on Union Street, located at the eastern end of Carleton Park,
was originally the medical inspection room, or as more commonly referred to "the
hospital", at the Ripples Internment Camp during the Second World War. When the internment
camp was demolished after the war, several buildings were purchased and moved
Grave of Second World War Italian Merchant Marine Internee
Hermitage Cemetery, Woodstock Road, Fredericton
St Mary's and Union Street, Devon, Fredericton
This factory owned by R.B. Hanson and operated by Harry Smith produced training ammunition for the Canadian Navy during World War Two.
No 32 Ordnance
Highway #8, McGivney
The McGivney Ammunition Depot was a third line ammunition depot in World War Two, which was closed in the 1960s. The Permanent Marriage Quarters, built in the 1950s, and ammunition storage bunkers still exist, but are privately owned. The camp chapel is now a Baptist Church and Sergeants' Mess was relocated to become the South Portage Recreation Center.
Carleton and York
Provincial Legislative Assembly Building, Queen's Street, Fredericton
On 10 February 1955 the Queen's and Regimental Colours of the Carleton and York Regiment were laid up in the Legislative Assembly, where they are on view to the public. The Carleton and York Regiment was formed in 1937 by the amalgamation of two New Brunswick regiments, the Carleton Light Infantry and the York Regiment, and through them, can trace its origins back the county militias first raised in 1787. The Carleton and York Regiment mobilized at Woodstock in 1939 as part of the 3rd Brigade of the 1st Canadian Division. During World War Two the Regiment saw action in Sicily, Italy and North West Europe. The Colours on display were the gift of the Hon. Murray MacLaren, Honourary Colonel of the Regiment and Lieutenant-Governor of New Brunswick, with the Regimental Colour emblazoned with their battle honours from World War One and the South African War. These colours were presented to the Regiment by His Majesty King George VI at Caterham, Surrey, England on July 1st, 1941.
Memorial School & Johnston Street
Union Street, Nashwaaksis, Fredericton
In memory of local airman killed in World War Two
Crash of Aircraft
from RCAF Station Pennfield
Park by Railway Station, McAdam
A Ventura III aircraft, part of a flight of three planes from RCAF Station Pennfield engaged in daylight training, collided with an indicator on top of a water tank in the CPR rail-yard in the Town of McAdam on Sunday morning18 December 1943. All four Canadian crew members were killed in the crash. A plaque was raised in memory of the crew on 30 June 30 2000.
Second World War troop trains stopping at McAdam Station
Lakeland Motel, McAdam
There is a mural painted by Russell London on the end wall of the Lakeland Motel in McAdam. Many troop trains stopped at the McAdam Railway Station during World War II. One of the first was the train carrying the Carleton & York Regiment from Woodstock to Halifax and on their way overseas. Since the Regiment had a number of men from McAdam, this train was greeted by a large crowd. The mural depicts various incidents which occurred when troops trains stopped at the station. In the mural one soldier is reading a newspaper with headlines covering the evacuation of Dunkirk.
Carleton street, Fredericton
The centre section, consisting of a drill hall and shooting range, was built in 1885 to accommodate the Infantry School Corps of the Canadian Army and the 71st York Battalion, the local militia unit. The East Annex was added in 1904 and the West Annex in 1934. There was a major renovation and update in the 1990s. The new entrance has the Union Jack incorporated in the brickwork and stands of bronze lee-enfield rifles. It is currently home to the 1st Battalion of the Royal New Brunswick Regiment.
1971 Lincoln Road, Lincoln
Manufacture of military kit - field message pads, map cases, etc.
TBM Avenger Torpedo
A number of Avengers are located beside the Lincoln Road at the Fredericton Airport. They were surplus World War Two aircraft used in spraying the spruce bud worm. They have recently been put up for sale.
Lynx Reconnaissance Vehicle
Legion Park, Harvey
Located in the Legion Park in Harvey is a Lynx, a small Canadian built armoured vehicle, designed as a command and reconnaissance vehicle, a replacement for the World War Two Ferret Scout Car. The Lynx was almost nine ton in weight, had a crew of three (commander, observer, and driver) and mounted both a 50 cal and a 30 cal machine guns. They were first deployed to Germany in 1968/69 in the Regimental Recce Troop of the Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians). They were later employed in the recce platoons of infantry battalions and with the brigade recce squadrons. Although the Lynx had a higher silhouette and was noisier than the older Ferret, it was amphibious, it parts were interchangeable with the standard 113 APC, had greater fire power, and a much better cross country capability. The Lynx was replaced in 1996 by the Coyote.
Six Pounder Anti-tank
Queen Street, The Royal Canadian Legion, Fredericton #4 Branch
On permanent display in front of the Legion are two six pounder anti-tank guns, with the war time formation markings of the 90th and 104th Batteries. In January 1942 the six pounder anti-tank gun replaced the 2 pounder in the RCA anti-tank regiments. In the last stage of World War Two, the six pounder was in turn replaced by the 17 pounder.
Park on Canada Street, Marysville, Fredericton
A six pounder anti-tank gun is located by the cenotaph in the Marysville Park on Canada Street. It is emblazoned with the artillery red over blue tactical sign with a white number two superimposed.
Colours of the Second Battalion, The Royal Canadian Regiment
Christ Church Cathedral,
corner of Brunswick and Church Streets
Inside the Cathedral above the main entrance hang the laid up Queen’s and Regimental Colours of the Second Battalion, The Royal Canadian Regiment. These Colours were presented to the Battalion in 1955 at Fort York in West Germany by His Royal Highness, Prince Philip, who had been appointed the Colonel in Chief of the Regiment in December 1953.
CG13 Todd Mountain, Pinetree Gao Filler Site Todd Mountain, Stanley Parish,
between Gordon Vale and Southwest Miramichi River.
The Pinetree Line was a joint Canadian and American Cold War project, designed to counter the perceived Soviet air threat. Canadian Forces Station St. Margarets in Northumberland County was the only Pinetree radar site built in New Brunswick. In October 1959, it was determined that there was a need for some 45 unmanned filler sites to improve the radar coverage of the system. Three were to be constructed in New Brunswick as satellites to St. Margarets, one of these was the CG13 Todd Mountain site. The filler sites were to be equipped with FPS 18 radars, two buildings, and a tower. Although by September 1962, construction at the Todd Mountain site was 50 - 75% complete, the project was cancelled before any of the filler sites became operational.
City Hall Fredericton
In front of the City Hall is an anchor presented to the City of Fredericton by her namesake ship HMCS Fredericton (FFH 337) on the occasion of the ship's commissioning on 10 September 1994 by its Commanding Officer Dan Gallina.
Grave of Major John “Jack” Mersereau Veness
(1922 - 2003)
Fredericton Rural Cemetery, Woodstock Road, Fredericton
Jack Veness was raised in Fredericton and joined the North Nova Scotia Highlanders in May 1942 at the age of 19. He saw extensive service in England, France, Belgium, Holland and German. He landed with his Regiment in France on D-Day plus one, was captured by the German SS, escaped, and spent time with the French Underground before returning to his Regiment in Holland in late 1944. His exploits in France are detailed in the book The Two Jacks. For his military service, Major Veness was mentioned in despatches and won the Croix de Guerre with Palm (French) and Chevalier of the Order of Leopold II with Palm (Belgium). He is buried in the Fredericton Rural Cemetery.