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1900s in Grand Lake Meadows


1900s Passkey

Instructions

Find the answers to the questions on this page to get your 1900s puzzle piece and passkey.
The answers may be found on any of the tabs you see on this page: Historical Map Scans, Animated/Interactive, What do these images tell us, or 1900s history.
With five correct answers you'll receive your 1900s Passkey and a completed puzzle piece.

Once you've collected all 5 History passkeys and puzzle pieces proceed to the HISTORY PUZZLE page to put all the pieces together

Questions:

Q1. How many hectares (ha) of land were returned to the crown:




Q2. What is associated with the building of CFB Gagetown

Q3. When did the expropriation of lands begin?

Q4. In the 1700s and 1800s the wetlands were called
'unprofitable sunken' land, what are they referred to as now?

Q5: A new alignment of the TransCanada Highway was
completed in 1960s



0 / 5 correct

Historical Maps: Provincial Archives New Brunswick

1932 1933

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Location at PANB:
RS655-34/ SU
French Lake to Maquapit Lake, Land Ownership

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Location at PANB:
RS656-1J/ QU/ 57-15
Hydrographic chart of St. John River, Evandale to Swan Creek
1939 1939

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Location at PANB:
RS655-34/ QU
Granted and Surveyed Lots in parts of Parishes of Cambridge, Johnson, Waterborough, Canning & Brunswick, Queens County

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Location at PANB:
RS655-34/ QU
Overview of the survey area, and land grants
1989 1989

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Location at PANB:
RS656-1K/ 146a-16
Plan of Survey, Her Majesty the Queen

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Location at PANB:
RS656-1K/ 146a-16
Plan of Survey, Her Majesty the Queen
1989 1989

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Location at PANB:
RS656-1K/ 146b-16
Plan of Survey, Her Majesty the Queen

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Location at PANB:
RS656-1K/ 146c-16
Plan of Survey, Her Majesty the Queen
1990

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Location at PANB:
RS656-1K/ 154-16
Plan of Survey, Ducks Unlimited
unknown unknown

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Location at PANB: online

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Location at PANB: online
unknown unknown

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Location at PANB: online

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Location at PANB: online

Historical Maps: New Brunswick Museum 

1932-1934 1939

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Saint John River, Evandale to Swan Creek (detail), 1932-1934, 111 x 57 cm, Courtesy of the New Brunswick Museum (W4752)

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Grand Lake, New Brunswick, 1939, 64 x 48 cm, Courtesy of the New Brunswick Museum (987.17.154)

Aerial Photographs: Department of Natural Resources, Public Services

1934 1945

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Aerial Photograph

1934 Aerial Image, PID 60080462

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Aerial Photograph

1945 Aerial Image, PID 60080462
1951

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Aerial Photograph

1951 Aerial Image, PID 60080462
To inquire further or obtain a copy of these (or other) Aerial Photographs from the Department of Natural Resources, please visit their web site

Government of Canada: Natural Resources Canada

1901 1958

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1901 Department of the Interior, Origins of the people
Source: Government of Canada: Natural Resources Canada
© Department of Natural Resources Canada. All rights reserved.

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1958 Aeromagnetic Series - Magnetic Survey, May 1958 by Geophysics Division, Geological Survey of Canada, Department of Mines and Technical Surveys.
Source: Government of Canada: Natural Resources Canada © Department of Natural Resources Canada. All rights reserved.

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Animated/Interactive Maps

(1) Transportation routes:

More roads were built. A new alignment of the TransCanada Highway (Route 2) in the early 1960s on the eastern bank of St. John River to accomodate the building and infrastructure of CFB Gagetown was completed.

In the late 1900's a 4-lane highway was built connecting Fredericton to Moncton, which cut through Grand Lake Meadows.

Old fasion car

(2) Land returned to the Crown

Approximately 3050 ha (5,674 football fields would fit into 3050 ha) of Grand Lake Meadows has been secured under the Eastern Habitat Joint Venture (Portobello Creek National Wildlife Area/Grand Lake Meadows Management Plan (PCNWA/GLM Mgmt. Plan) 2000).
The yellow polygons represent land returned to the crown, and owned by Her Majesty the Queen. The red polygons represent land owned by Ducks Unlimited.

If you view this series of maps from 1989 maps in the Geography > Historical Map Overlays, you'll see the lands returned to the crown are in Sunbury County.


(3) Survey Technology:

The maps early in the 1900s (up to ~1939) look very similar to earlier maps. With no legend, title or identification. The maps from 1989 have a more standardized look to them. They have title bars, more descriptive information, coordinates, legal disclaimers
Click on the image to see a larger view.


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(4) Hydrographic Chart

The map from 1933 is a hydrographic chart that collected soundings (water depths) of the St. John River, Grand Lake, and other water bodies in the area.

This map provides the first recorded map showing water depths and bathymetry of the area.


Geographic Location

(5) Wetlands

Wetlands being called a Marsh now.

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What can we learn about the 1900s in Grand Lake Meadows from these Maps?


    (1) Construction of CFB Gagetown & the 'end' of farming

At the beginning of the Cold War (1947) the Canadian government was looking for a location with land where they could establish a suitable training facility for the Canadian Army. This location needed to be located relatively close to an all-season Atlantic port as well as railway connections. The area under consideration was between west of the St. John River between St. John and Fredericton.

At the time, over 900 families inhabited this area. They used the land for: agriculture and forestry.

In the early 1950's the expropriation of lands began.

  • Expropriation: when a public agency (for example: government) takes private property for a purpose deemed to be in the public interest, even though the owner of the property may not be willing to sell it."

    Construction of the base facilities for Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Gagetown began in the village of Oromocto.

    The Gagetown Military Camp (Camp Gagetown) opened in 1956 and named after the village of Gagetown.

      (2) Transportation

    A by product of base construction was improved transportation connections:

  • Railway connections provided by Canadian National and Canadian Pacific Railways
  • New alignment of the TransCanada Highway (Route 2) in the early 1960s on the eastern bank of St. John River
  • The TransCanada Highway was redesigned in the late 1990's
  • New highway bridge across the St. John River and the village of Burton
    1. (3)Land Returned to crown

    Much of the land in this study area was returned to the Crown (Her Majesty the Queen) or affiliated organizations.

    The Eastern Habitat Joint Venture is a partnership whose purpose is to protect and enhance the wetlands for wildlife habitat. Of the 5000 ha in Grand Lake Meadows, 3050 ha have have been secured under the Eastern Habitat Joint Venture (Portobello Creek National Wildlife Area/Grand Lake Meadows Management Plan (PCNWA/GLM Mgmt. Plan) 2000). The founding partners of this group were:

  • The six easternmost provinces: Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, and Quebec
  • Canadian Wildlife Service
  • Ducks Unlimited Canada
  • Wildlife Habitat Canada
  • Grand Lake Meadows wetland is made up of land in both Queens and Sunbury Counties. In the series of maps from 1989, RS656-1K/ 146a, 146b, and 146c the lands returned to the crown are found in Sunbury County.

      (4) Survey Technology

    Advancements in technology have increased the speed of data collection as well as the accuracy. Measurements are typically now made with GPS receivers or total stations.

    A Total station is an electronic/optical instrument used in modern surveying. It is integrated with an electronic distance meter (EDM) to measure/read distances between the instrument and a particular point. The instrument measurement is reflected off the prism at the top of the pole, and a distance and angle are calculated for the points.

    In the late 1950's surveyors started using Theodolites or transits to measure angles in the horizontal and vertical planes. In the 1960s came the Geodimeter which was able to measure distance using laser technology. Further technological advancements brought the Total Station, and 'robotic' technology - to control the instrument using a remote control.

    Theodolite Geodimeter Total Station
    1950s 1960s 1980s

    Image from: Wikipedia

    Image from: Maine.gov

    Image from: Connect Blue


    GPS receivers started to be used near the end of the 1900's, in the 1990's. GPS is a navigation system that provides uses space-based satellites and local GPS receivers to calculate a users location on the earth.

    Image from: College of Sciences Lisbon

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    1900: Brief historical timeline in New Brunswick (N.B.)


    (as adapted from World Atlas)
  • 1919: Women won right to vote
  • 1922: Hartland Bridge covered- longest covered bridge in world
  • 1934: Women won right to hold provincial office
  • 1937: Miramichi Strike
  • 1950s: Expropriation of lands began
  • 1955: Low temperature of -47.2° C measured at Sisson Dam
  • 1956: Gagetown Military Camp (Camp Gagetown) opened
  • 1960s: New alignment of the TransCanada Highway (Route 2)
  • 1970: North America's first deep-water terminal for supertankers officially opened
  • 1972: Federal government banned fishing off N.B. coast to conserve dwindling fish stocks
  • 1974: Became first province to draft statutes in both official languages
  • 1984 - 1985: Potash mining began
  • 1993: Section 16.1 added to Charter of Rights: proclaimed equality of N.B.'s English-speaking and French-speaking communities
  • 1997: Confederation Bridge opened, connecting N.B. and Prince Edward island
  • 1997: Flooding occurred in large potash mine, causing closure
  • 1998: Theriault became Premier
  • 1999: N.B. Progressive Conservation Party won landside victory in provincial election-Bernard Lord became premier
  • 1990s: TransCanada Highway was redesigned in the late 1990's
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    to the 2000s





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    Content last updated 2013. University of New Brunswick, Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering Department