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1700s in Grand Lake Meadows


1700s Passkey

Instructions

Find the answers to the questions on this page to get your 1700s puzzle piece and passkey.
The answers may be found on any of the tabs you see on this page: Historical Map Scans, Animated/Interactive, What do these images tell us, or 1700s history.
With five correct answers you'll receive your 1700s Passkey and a completed puzzle piece.

Once you've collected all 5 History passkeys and puzzle pieces proceed to the HISTORY PUZZLE page to put all the pieces together

Questions:

Q1. What was the main mode of transportation in 1700s:




Q2. What measurement units were used?:

Q3. Why are there so many maps from 1786?:

Q4. How were wetland areas described (2 words)?:

Q5: Trees were used to indicate property corners:



0 / 5 correct

Historical Maps found at Provincial Archives N.B.

What can you learn about this time in Grand Lake Meadows from reviewing these historical maps?
1785 1785

Geographic Location
Full Resolution Image

Location at PANB:
RS687B/ Q1/10-Q1/16.
Property boundaries, thoroughfare between French Lake & Maquapit Lake

Geographic Location
Full Resolution Image

Location at PANB:
RS686C/ SU/ F17285.
Thoroughfare, 'sunken land', and Maquapit Lake
1785 1785

Geographic Location
Full Resolution Image

Location at PANB:
RS686C/ SU/ F17285/ SU1.
Maugers Island, Simmonds Creek

Geographic Location
Full Resolution Image

Location at PANB:
RS686C/ SU/ F17285/ SU1.
French Lake, French Island, Maquapit Lake
1785 1786

Geographic Location
Full Resolution Image

Location at PANB:
RSRS686C/ QU/ F17274/ Q1.
Maquapit Lake, thoroughfares

Geographic Location
Full Resolution Image

Location at PANB:
RS686C/ QU/ F17274/ QU1
Properties surrounding Maquapit Lake
1785 1785

Geographic Location
Full Resolution Image

Location at PANB:
RS686C/ QU/ F17274/ QU1
Maquapit Lake, thoroughfare to Grand Lake

Geographic Location
Full Resolution Image

Location at PANB:
RS656-1J/ QU/1-QU/5
Properties between St. John River and Grand Lake
1786 1788

Geographic Location
Full Resolution Image

Location at PANB:
RS686C/ QU/ F17274/ QU1
Properties east and west of Maquapit Lake

Geographic Location
Full Resolution Image

Location at PANB:
RS656-1J/ QU/3-QU/15
Properties east and west of Maquapit Lake
1788 1788

Geographic Location
Full Resolution Image

Location at PANB:
RS687B/ Q1/10-Q1/16
Property boundaries, peninsula between Maquapit Lake and Grand Lake

Geographic Location
Full Resolution Image

Location at PANB:
RS686C/ QU/ F17274/ QU1
'Sunken land', Thoroughfare between Maquapit Lake and Grand Lake

Historical Map courtesy of the New Brunswick Museum 

1788

Geographic Location
Full Resolution Image

The Great River Saint John & Waters from the Bay of Fundy up to St. Ann's or Frederick's Town (detail), 10 July 1788, engraving on paper, 50.9 x 41.4 cm, Courtesy of the New Brunswick Museum (57.149)

Animated/Interactive Maps

(1) Transportation routes

Western section of study area

Settlers may have travelled along the 'Blue' line, which is named the 'Main Thoroughfare' between French Lake and Maquapit Lake. Another route may have been from the St. John River, up the Loder Creek (previously called Simmonds Creek) to French Lake.
(If you click on the 'Blue' line, you'll see a zoomed in section of the Main Thoroughfare)
Map: RS687B-Q1-10-16_c, from 1785

Eastern section of study area


Settlers may have travelled across the southern shore of Grand Lake into the Jemseg River, or along the St. John River.
Map: RS656-1J37-15QU_1_1a, from 1786

canoe image from: http://www.bethelhistorical.org/A_River's_Journey.html

(2) Land Division

Western section of study area

Land was divided up into long, narrow parcels, and with access to water at each end. In this image, to the south, parcels have frontage on the St. John River, and to the north, along the Grand Lake.
Each of the polygons (red, green, and blue) represent a single parcel of land.
Map: RS656-1J37-15QU_1_1a, from 1786

Eastern section of study area

In this map, south of Maquapit Lake and along the neck between Grand Lake and Maquapit Lakes, the land is not subdivided into individual plots. Instead, it is noted as belonging to an "individual and associates" or "individual and others".
Ex: Hezekiah Morris and Associates, Henry Miller and others, or Samuel Downling and others
Map: RS686C_LG_F17274_c, from 1786

(3) Wetland Identification

The red shaded area in this map represents land identified as 'unprofitable sunken'. This 'unprofitable sunken' land is part of what we now call the wetlands.
(If you click on the red polygon, you'll see a close up view of this area of the map)
Map: RS686C_LG_F17285_a, from 1785


(4) Magnetic Meridian

Roll your mouse over the image to see it rotated to magnetic north.
Map: RS686C_LG_F17285_b, from 1785
Detail


(5) Property/Survey Markers

In the 1700s trees were used to mark the property boundaries or corners of the property. In this image we can see Ash, Poplar, Maple, and Long Ash trees referenced as property markers.
Roll your mouse over the image to see trees appear at the property boundaries.
Map: RS656-1J37-15QU_1_1a, from 1786
TreeSurveyMarkers

What can we learn about the 1700s in Grand Lake Meadows from these Maps?


    (1) Method of Transportation

Settlers generally moved from one place to another via the waterways.
For example: to get from French Lake to Maquapit Lake (as in image RS687B-Q1-10-16_c) they travelled through the waterway labelled 'Main Thoroughfare'. Grand Lake Meadows was a very desirable location to live due to the abundance of lakes, rivers, and streams. Not only were the waterways used for transportation but also for fishing, bathing, and drinking.

    (2) Land Division

Lands were granted to individuals starting in 1765 while under Nova Scotia government.

When New Brunswick became a separate colony in 1784, those who were granted land had to re-register their grants in N.B. The land grant books (found in the RS686 collection at PANB) describe the meters and bounds (extents) of the granted lands in New Brunswick from 1784 to 1986. In image RS687B-Q1-10-16_c we can see t hat owners have access to water at the south, to St. John River, and to the north, Maquapit Lake.

Trees were used as survey markers to indicate the corners of a parcel of land, as can be seen in image RS656-1J37-15QU_1_1a.

    (3) Value of Land

In image RS686C_LG_F17285_a we see shaded section and the text 'unprofitable sunken' land.

In the 1700s, people lived off the land (for example: planting crops, raising livestock, or hunting). Land that is sunken or covered with water all or part of the year is considered unprofitable as its unsuitable for growing crops or raising livestock.

    (4) Magnetic Meridian

Some of the maps contain a line with an arrow on the end which is labelled 'Magnetic Meridian'.

The magnetic meridian is an imaginary line connecting the north and south poles. If you take a magnetic compass, the needle will be parallel to the magnetic meridian. The needle on this compass is mounted in such a way that it can turn freely, and as you move or rotate it, the needle always points towards magnetic north.

    (5) Survey Methods and Technology

In the 1700s magnetic compassses, along with a 'chain' (#6 Units of Measure) were used to create these maps.

Want to learn more about the Chinese invention of the magnetic compass? click here.

    (6) Units of Measure

The charts from the 1700s all use 'Chains' as their unit of measure. In order to measure accurately with little technology (as was needed in the 1700s) chain was used.
What's a chain? In 1620, the clergyman Edmund Gunter developed a method of surveying land accurately with low technology equipment, using what became known as Gunter's chain; this was 66 feet long and from the practice of using his chain, the word transferred to the actual measured unit. His chain had 100 links, and the link is used as a subdivision of the chain as a unit of length.
chain

    (7) Mapping System

The maps from the 1700s do not use a 'coordinate system' or 'projection'. For example, there is no reference to a Latitude or Longitude (ex:45.8708N,66.2214W). Instead, the maps are drawn based on a standard unit of measure (see (#6) Units of Measure). Geographic landmarks like: Grand Lake, St. John River, and Maquapit Lake are shown on the maps which help us to understand the location the map represents.

    (8) Genealogy

From the name on the land grant we can search the Provincial Archives records further to determine biographical information such as: birthplace, origin, number of children, wife, etc of the land owners.

1700: Brief historical timeline in New Brunswick (N.B.)


(as adapted from World Atlas)
  • 1600s (late) and 1700s (early): Numerous conflicts between the French and British empires
  • 1713: signing of Treaty of Utrecht (giving British control) - previously N.B. belonged to France
  • 1755: Defeat of the French - more than 5,000 Acadians were forced into exile from their lands by the British
  • 1756 - 1763: Seven Years' War - British extended control to include all of N.B.
  • 1758: British raiding party destroyed Grimross (Gagetown), burned 50 buildings. Fort Frederick established at mouth of St. John River
  • 1763: N.B. absorbed into colony of Nova Scotia
  • 1765: Lands granted while under Nova Scotia government
  • 1783: Settlers at St. Anne's Point (Fredericton) had snowfall, freezing temperatures in tents with no floors nor provisions for winter
  • 1784: New Brunswick established as a separate colony and divided into 8 counties. Previously granted lands needed to re-register in N.B.
  • 1784: Fredericton was established as the capital
  • 1786: First legislature of New Brunswick met



  • to the 1800s




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    Content last updated 2013. University of New Brunswick, Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering Department