|PART I. GENERAL
Article 1. All private
ownership of land, minerals, waters, forests, and natural resources
within the boundaries of the Russian Federated Soviet Republic is
Article 2. Henceforth
all the land is handed over without compensation (open or secret)
to the toiling masses for their use.
Article 3. With the exceptions
indicated in this decree the right to the use of the land belongs
to him who cultivates it with his own labor.
Article 4. The right
to the use of the land cannot be limited on account of sex, religion,
nationality, or citizenship.
Article 5. All minerals,
forests, water, and other live forces of nature (depending on their
importance) are placed at the disposition of the uezd, gubernia,
regional, or federal Soviets to be controlled by them. The methods
of utilizing and managing the above resources will be determined
by special decree.
Article 6. All privately owned live stock, agricultural implements,
and buildings of estates that are worked by hired labor shall be
taken over by the land departments of the uezd, gubernia, regional,
and federal Soviets without compensation.
Article 7. All buildings
referred to in Article 6 and others that are of economic value,
together with the agricultural enterprises attached [to these buildings.
pass without compensation to the uezd, gubernia, regional, and federal
Article 8. All persons
unable to work and who are deprived of the means of livelihood in
consequence of this decree may, on presenting a certificate from
the local courts and land departments of the Soviet Government,
receive a pension (as long as they live or until they are of age)
equivalent to that of a soldier. This will obtain until a general
decree is promulgated concerning the insurance of citizens unable
Article 9. The distribution
of agricultural land among the toilers is in the hands of the land
departments of the village, volost, uezd, gubernia, regional, and
Article 10. Tile administration
of the land reserve in each republic is in the hands of the main
land departments [of the republics] and the federal Soviet.
Article 11. In addition
to effecting an equitable distribution of the agricultural land
among the toiling agricultural population and a more efficient utilization
of the national resources, the local and federal land departments
have also the following duties: (a) to create conditions favorable
to the development of the productive forces of the country by increasing
the productivity of the soil, to develop scientific farming, and
to raise the general level of agricultural knowledge among the land
toilers; (b) to create a reserve of agricultural land; (c) to develop
agricultural enterprises sail as horticulture, apiculture, market-gardening,
stock raising, dairying, etc.; (d) to hasten in certain areas the
transition from a less productive to a more productive system of
land cultivation by effecting a better distribution of the agricultural
population ; (e) to encourage the collective system of agriculture
at the expense of individual farming, the former being more economical
and leading to socialistic economy.
Article 12. The distribution
of land among the toilers should be made on an equal basis and in
accordance with the ability to work it: local standards and traditions
should also be taken into consideration. Care should he exercised
that no one should have more than he can work or less than he needs
for a comfortable existence.
.Article 13. The basic
right to the use of agricultural land is individual labor. The organs
of the Soviet Government may, in addition, make use of a portion
of the land reserve (formerly belonging to monasteries, the state,
udel, the cabinet, and pomeshchiks) for .... model farms and experiment
stations. In such cases hired labor may be employed under the general
regulations of labor control.
Article 14. All citizens
engaged in agriculture are to be insured at the expense of the state
against loss of life, old age. sickness, accident, and disability.
Article 15. All incapacitated
agriculturists and members of their families who are unable to work
are to be taken care of by the Soviet government.
Article 16. Every farm
is to be insured against fire, live-stock epidemics, poor crops,
drought, hail, and other such misfortunes through
Soviet mutual insurance
Article 17. Surplus income
derived from the natural fertility of the soil or from nearness
to market is to be turned over to the organs of the Soviet Government,
which will use it for the good of society.
Article 18. The Soviet
Government has a monopoly of the trade in agricultural machinery
Article 19. The grain
trade, both foreign and domestic, is to be a state monopoly.